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08/11/2020 / Test All Things

What About The Sabbath?

Many have different views and beliefs about the Sabbath and different convictions about it. Some say that we are to keep the Sabbath on the 7th day. Some say that it is the mark of the beast if we don’t keep the sabbath on the 7th day. Some say that the Sabbath is on the 1st day of the week, while others don’t like worshipping on the 1st day of the week, because they say that it is the day of the sun, which was named after the sun gods of the ancient world. To begin with, all the days of our week were named after deities (gods) of the ancient pagan world.

Sunday was the day of the sun god.

Monday was the day of the moon god. Monday in Spanish is Lunes, which comes from Luna, and that comes from the Latin (the Roman Language) Luna.

Tuesday comes from the Middle English TiwesdaiTwisdaiTuesdai. It comes from the Old English Tiwesdaeg (day of Tiw). Tiw is an ancient Teutonic war god, identified with the Roman Mars. The name Tiw is etymologically connected with the Greek god Zeus. These words are properly a loan translation of the Latin Martis dies, which is the day of Mars. In Spanish Tuesday is Martes. Itself being a loan translation of the Greek Areosemerathe day of Ares.

Wednesday was the day of odin, or wodin.

Thursday was the day of thor. The Roman Jupiter was identified with the Germanic Thor. The Latin word is the source of Italian giovedi, Old French juesdi, French jeudi, Spanish jueves, and is itself a loan translation of the Greek dios hemera, the day of Zeus.

Friday was the day of freya, which means fish day. That is why Roman Catholics eat fish on Fridays. It comes from the Old English frigedæg, Frigga’s day, and that comes from Frige, the Germanic goddess of married love. The day name is a West Germanic translation of Latin dies Veneris, day of Venus, which itself translated Greek Aphrodites hemera. We get the Spanish word Viernes.

Saturday, is pretty obvious, was the day of Saturn. In Spanish it is Sabado, which comes from the Hebrew word Sabbath.

We are drenched with paganism. That is why the Jews called their days, the 1st day of the week, the 2nd day of the week, the 3rd day of the week, etc…It is actually the 1st of the Sabbath, the 2nd of the Sabbath, the 3rd day of the Sabbath, etc… McClintock and Strong’s Cyclopedia says, “the days of the week had no proper names among the Hebrews but were distinguished only by their numeral order from the Sabbath. Their week was simply determined by the Sabbath; and there is no evidence of any other day, with them, having either had a name assigned to it, or any particular associations bound up with it. The days seem to have been distinguished merely by the ordinal numerals, counted from the Sabbath”. Their days are different than ours. Our days begin at 12:00 A.M., while their days begin at sundown, 6:00 P.M. And they get this from Genesis.

Gen 1:5 – And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

McClintock and Strong’s Cyclopedia says, “the prevalent method of computation, is evinced by the fact that the Jewish civil day begins, not with the morning, but the evening. Thus the Sabbath commences with the sunset of Friday, and ends with the sunset of Saturday. That this was the case in Judaea in our Savior’s day is evident from the evangelists’ account of the Passion”. Let’s begin with the first mention of the word Sabbath.

Ex 16:23 – And he said unto them, This is that which the LORD hath said, To morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the LORD: bake that which ye will bake to day, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.

Sabbath is the OT Hebrew word shabbathComplete Biblical Library says, shabbath means to cease or come to an end. The Jewish Encyclopedia says, Sabbath is the seventh day of the week; the day of rest. Antiquities of the Jews by Josephus says, “Accordingly Moses says, that in just six days the world, and all that is therein, was made. And that the seventh day was a rest, and a release from the labor of such operations; whence it is that we celebrate a rest from our labors on that day, and call it the Sabbath, which word denotes rest in the Hebrew tongue”. The word rest in this same verse is the word shabbathown, which comes from shabbathComplete Biblical Library says, with an abstract ending onshabbathon may designate a particular Sabbath, a Sabbath that separates itself from another Sabbath”. Shabath is the root word, which is used in the following verses.

Gen 8:22 – While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease (shabath).

Ex 5:5 – And Pharaoh said, Behold, the people of the land now are many, and ye make them rest (shabath) from their burdens.

Ex 12:15 – Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away (shabath) leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.

Lev 2:13 – And every oblation of thy meat offering shalt thou season with salt; neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God to be lacking (shabath) from thy meat offering: with all thine offerings thou shalt offer salt.

Lev 26:6 – And I will give peace in the land, and ye shall lie down, and none shall make you afraid: and I will rid (shabath) evil beasts out of the land, neither shall the sword go through your land.

Dt 32:26 – I said, I would scatter them into corners, I would make the remembrance of them to cease (shabath) from among men:

Jos 5:12 – And the manna ceased (shabath) on the morrow after they had eaten of the old corn of the land; neither had the children of Israel manna any more; but they did eat of the fruit of the land of Canaan that year.

Jos 22:25 – For the LORD hath made Jordan a border between us and you, ye children of Reuben and children of Gad; ye have no part in the LORD: so shall your children make our children cease (shabath) from fearing the LORD.

Ruth 4:14 – And the women said unto Naomi, Blessed be the LORD, which hath not left (shabath) thee this day without a kinsman, that his name may be famous in Israel.

II K 23:5 – And he put down (shabath) the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them also that burned incense unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the planets, and to all the host of heaven.

II K 23:11 – And he took away (shabath) the horses that the kings of Judah had given to the sun, at the entering in of the house of the LORD, by the chamber of Nathanmelech the chamberlain, which was in the suburbs, and burned the chariots of the sun with fire.

II Ch 16:5 – And it came to pass, when Baasha heard it, that he left off building of Ramah, and let his work cease (shabath).

Job 32:1 – So these three men ceased (shabath) to answer Job, because he was righteous in his own eyes.

Ps 8:2 – Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast thou ordained strength because of thine enemies, that thou mightest still (shabath) the enemy and the avenger.

Ps 46:9 – He maketh wars to cease (shabath) unto the end of the earth; he breaketh the bow, and cutteth the spear in sunder; he burneth the chariot in the fire.

Ps 89:44 – Thou hast made his glory to cease (shabath), and cast his throne down to the ground.

Ps 119:119 – Thou puttest away (shabath) all the wicked of the earth like dross: therefore I love thy testimonies.

Pro 18:18 – The lot causeth contentions to cease (shabath), and parteth between the mighty.

Pro 22:10 – Cast out the scorner, and contention shall go out; yea, strife and reproach shall cease (shabath).

Hos 2:11 – I will also cause all her mirth to cease (shabath), her feast days, her new moons, and her sabbaths, and all her solemn feasts.

Lam 1:7 – Jerusalem remembered in the days of her affliction and of her miseries all her pleasant things that she had in the days of old, when her people fell into the hand of the enemy, and none did help her: the adversaries saw her, and did mock at her sabbaths (mishbath – from shabath).

Ex 21:19 – If he rise again, and walk abroad upon his staff, then shall he that smote him be quit: only he shall pay for the loss of his time (shebeth – from shabath), and shall cause him to be thoroughly healed.

Pro 20:3 – It is an honour for a man to cease (shebeth) from strife: but every fool will be meddling.

Isa 30:7 – For the Egyptians shall help in vain, and to no purpose: therefore have I cried concerning this, Their strength is to sit still (shebeth).

There were many Sabbaths, not just the Sabbath day. Every 7th day was a Sabbath.

Gen 2:2 – And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested (shabath – to cease from work, to stop or to rest) on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.

3 – And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested (shabath) from all his work which God created and made.

Ex 16:26 – Six days ye shall gather it (the manna); but on the seventh day, which is the sabbath (shabbath – singular), in it there shall be none.

Ex 16:29 – See, for that the LORD hath given you the sabbath (shabbath – singular), therefore he giveth you on the sixth day (our day Friday – the day of preparation – Ex 16:5, 23) the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.

Ex 16:30 – So the people rested (shabath) on the seventh day.

Ex 20:10 – But the seventh day is the Sabbath (shabbath – singular) of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates:

11 – For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested (nuwach – rest, settle down – a synonym for shabath – we get the word Noah) the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath (shabbath – singular) day, and hallowed it.

Ex 23:12 – Six days thou shalt do thy work, and on the seventh day thou shalt rest (shabath): that thine ox and thine ass may rest, and the son of thy handmaid, and the stranger, may be refreshed.

Ex 31:15 – Six days may work be done; but in the seventh is the sabbath (shabbath – singular) of rest (shabbathown), holy to the LORD: whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath (shabbath – singular) day, he shall surely be put to death.

Ex 34:21 – Six days thou shalt work, but on the seventh day thou shalt rest (shabath): in earing time and in harvest thou shalt rest (shabath).

Ex 35:2 – Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall be to you an holy day, a sabbath (shabbath – singular) of rest (shabbathown) to the LORD: whosoever doeth work therein shall be put to death.

Dt 5:14 – But the seventh day is the sabbath (shabbath – singular) of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; that thy manservant and thy maidservant may rest as well as thou.

McClintock and Strong’s Cyclopedia says, this day was celebrated by the Hebrews as a holy day (Dt 5:12), a day of rest and rejoicing (Isa 58:13; comp. Hosea 2:11), by ceasing from all labor, with their servants and all strangers, as well as cattle (Ex 20:10; 31:13; 34:21; 35:2; Dt 5:14, comp. Jer 17:21, 24; and by a special burned offering, presented in the Temple, in addition to the usual daily offering, which was doubled on this day consisting of two yearling lambs, with the meat offerings and drink offerings belonging to it (Num 38:9; comp. II Ch 31:3; Neh 10:33;  Ezk 46:4). In the holy place of the Temple, the shewbread was renewed (Lev 24:8; I Ch 9:32), and the new division of priests appointed for that week took their places (II K 11:5, 7, 9; II Ch 23:4). The services of the priests and Levites in and about the tabernacle and Temple were not accounted labor (comp. Mt 12:5), and continued through the Sabbath. Circumcision, too, as a religious ceremony, took place on the Sabbath, when that was the eighth day. The Sabbath began and ended in all Jewish cities at the sound of the trumpet. Josephus records this custom of Jerusalem. In the Temple, the trumpet was to be blown from the covert for the Sabbath, or Sabbath roofJosephus’ War of the Jews says, And thus did Simon get possession of Jerusalem, in the third year of the war, in the month Xanthicus [Nisan]; whereupon John, with his multitude of zealots, as being both prohibited from coming out of the temple, and having lost their power in the city, [for Simon and his party had plundered them of what they had] were in despair of deliverance. Simon also made an assault upon the temple, with the assistance of the people, while the others stood upon the cloisters and the battlements and defended themselves from their assaults. However, a considerable number of Simon’s party fell, and many were carried off wounded; for the zealots threw their darts easily from a superior place, and seldom failed of hitting their enemies; but having the advantage of situation, and having withal erected four very large towers aforehand, that their darts might come from higher places, one at the north-east corner of the court, one above the Xystus, the third at another corner over against the lower city, and the last was erected above the top of the Pastophoria, where one of the priests stood of course, and gave a signal beforehand with a trumpet at the beginning of every seventh day, in the evening twilight, as also at the evening when that day was finished, as giving notice to the people when they were to leave off work, and when they were to go to work again.

Every feast day, which was a holy day (we get the word holiday from that), was a sabbath.

Lev 23:1 – And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

2 – Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts (mow‘ed – appointed times) of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations (miqra – callings, assemblings or gatherings), even these are my feasts (mow‘ed).

3 – Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the sabbath (shabbath – singular) of rest (shabbathown), an holy convocation (miqra); ye shall do no work therein: it is the sabbath (shabbath – singular) of the LORD in all your dwellings.

The Sabbath itself was regarded a feast day. The Passover and the feast of unleavened bread was a sabbath.

4 – These are the feasts (mow‘ed) of the LORD, even holy convocations (miqra), which ye shall proclaim in their seasons (mow‘ed).

5 – In the fourteenth day of the first month (Nisan) at even is the LORD’S passover.

6 – And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast (chag – festival or pilgrimage) of unleavened bread unto the LORD: seven days ye must eat unleavened bread.

7 – In the first day ye shall have an holy convocation (miqra): ye shall do no servile work therein.

The feast of weeks, which was the feast of Pentecost was a sabbath.

Lev 23:15 – And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the sabbath(shabbath), from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering (from the 16thof Nisan to the 6th of the 3rd month); seven sabbaths (shabbath – plural) shall be complete:

16 – Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath (shabbath – singular) shall ye number fifty days (this is called the feast of weeks or Pentecost); and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto the LORD.

Lev 23:21 – And ye shall proclaim on the selfsame day, that it may be an holy convocation (miqra) unto you: ye shall do no servile work thereinit shall be a statute for ever in all your dwellings throughout your generations.

The feast of trumpets was a sabbath.

Lev 23:24 – Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath (shabbathown), a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation (miqra).

25 – Ye shall do no servile work therein: but ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

The day of atonement and the day of fasting was a sabbath.

Lev 23:27 – Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be an holy convocation (miqra) unto you; and ye shall afflict (anah– to humble) your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

28 – And ye shall do no work in that same day: for it is a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you before the LORD your God.

29 – For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted (anah) in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his people.

30 – And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that same day, the same soul will I destroy from among his people.

31 – Ye shall do no manner of work: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings.

32 – It shall be unto you a sabbath (shabbath – singular) of rest (shabbathown), and ye shall afflict (anah) your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye celebrate (shabath) your sabbath (shabbath – singular).

Look at Lev 16 also for the day of atonement as a sabbath.

Lev 16:29 – And this shall be a statute for ever unto you: that in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict (anah) your souls, and do no work at all, whether it be one of your own country, or a stranger that sojourneth among you:

30 – For on that day shall the priest make an atonement for you, to cleanse you, thatye may be clean from all your sins before the LORD.

31 – It shall be a sabbath (shabbath – singular) of rest (shabbathown) unto you, and ye shall afflict (anah) your souls, by a statute for ever.

The feast of tabernacles was a sabbath.

Lev 23:34 – Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, The fifteenth day of this seventh month shall be the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto the LORD.

35 – On the first day shall be an holy convocation (miqra): ye shall do no servile work therein.

36 – Seven days ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD: on the eighth day shall be an holy convocation (miqra) unto you; and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD: it is a solemn assembly; and ye shall do no servile work therein.

37 – These are the feasts of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations (miqra), to offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD, a burnt offering, and a meat offering, a sacrifice, and drink offerings, every thing upon his day:

38 – Beside the sabbaths (shabbath – plural) of the LORD, and beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill offerings, which ye give unto the LORD.

The feast of ingathering and feast of booths was a sabbath.

Lev 23:39 – Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days: on the first day shall be a sabbath (shabbath – singular), and on the eighth day shall be a sabbath (shabbath – singular).

40 – And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days.

41 – And ye shall keep it a feast (chag) unto the LORD seven days in the year. It shall be a statute for ever in your generations: ye shall celebrate (chagag – to observe a feast and the act of undertaking the pilgrimage to the sanctuary, it actually means to gather for a festival – the root word for chag) it in the seventh month.

42 – Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths:

43 – That your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.

44 – And Moses declared unto the children of Israel the feasts of the LORD.

Every 7th year was a sabbath for the land.

Lev 25:2 – Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye come into the land which I give you, then shall the land keep (shabath) a sabbath (shabbath – singular) unto the LORD.

3 – Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof;

4 – But in the seventh year shall be a Sabbath (shabbath – singular) of rest (shabbathown) unto the land, a Sabbath (shabbath – singular) for the Lord: thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard (but they didn’t do this because of their greed).

5 – That which groweth of its own accord of thy harvest thou shalt not reap, neither gather the grapes of thy vine undressed: for it is a year of rest (shabbathown) unto the land (leave it alone).

6 – And the Sabbath (shabbath – singular) of the land shall be meat (food) for you: for thee, and for thy servant, and for thy maid, and for thy hired servant, and for thy stranger that sojourneth with thee,

7 – And for thy cattle, and for the beast that are in thy land, shall all the increase thereof be meat (it will be for everyone to eat of and share).

Lev 26:34 – Then shall the land enjoy her sabbaths (shabbath – plural), as long as it lieth desolate, and ye be in your enemies’ land; even then shall the land rest (shabath), and enjoy her sabbaths (shabbath – plural).

35 – As long as it lieth desolate it shall rest (shabath); because it did not rest (shabath) in your sabbaths (shabbath – plural), when ye dwelt upon it.

Lev 26:43 – The land also shall be left of them, and shall enjoy her sabbaths (shabbath– plural), while she lieth desolate without them: and they shall accept of the punishment of their iniquity: because, even because they despised my judgments, and because their soul abhorred my statutes.

II Ch 36:21 – To fulfil the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed her sabbaths (shabbath – plural): for as long as she lay desolate she kept sabbath (shabath), to fulfil threescore and ten years.

Every 50th year was a jubilee, where they forgave all debts and started from scratch again, which was to keep them from greed and that was a sabbath. 

Lev 25:8 – And thou shalt number seven Sabbaths (shabbath – plural) of years unto thee, seven times seven years (49 years); and the space of the seven Sabbaths (shabbath – plural) of years shall be unto thee forty and nine years.

9 – Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the jubilee to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month, in the Day of Atonement shall ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your land.

10 – And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year (jubilee – after the 49 years), and proclaim liberty (or forgiveness of debts) throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubilee unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family.

Some Jews had to become servants to other Jews, because they owed them money. On the 50th year, jubilee, all their debts were forgiven and they went back to their original land and to their family, to start all over again. This was to keep everyone from greed.

11 – A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto you: ye shall not sow, neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of thy vine undressed.

12 – For it is the jubilee; it shall be holy unto you: ye shall eat the increase thereof out of the field.

13 – In the year of this jubilee ye shall return every man unto his possession.

The sabbath was a sign.

Ex 31:13 – Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily my sabbaths (shabbath –

Plural – all of them, not just The Sabbath) ye shall keep: for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am the LORD that doth sanctify you.

Ex 31:17 – It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested (shabath), and was refreshed.

Ezk 20:12 – Moreover also I gave them my sabbaths (shabbath – plural), to be a sign between me and them, that they might know that I am the LORD that sanctify them.

Jesus said the following regarding signs:

Mt 12:39 – But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas:

Mt 16:4 – A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas. And he left them, and departed.

Mk 8:12 – And he sighed deeply in his spirit, and saith, Why doth this generation seek after a sign? verily I say unto you, There shall no sign be given unto this generation.

Lk 11:29 – And when the people were gathered thick together, he began to say, This is an evil generation: they seek a sign; and there shall no sign be given it, but the sign of Jonas the prophet.

What is that sign? Isn’t it the resurrection?

The sabbath is forever.

Ex 31:16 – Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the Sabbath (shabbath – singular), to observe (asah – to make or do) the Sabbath (shabbath) throughout their generations, for a perpetual (owlam) covenant.

17 – It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested (shabath), and was refreshed (take breath, refresh oneself, catch a breath).

Lev 24:8 – Every sabbath (shabath – singular – it actually says, on the day of the Sabbath) he shall set it in order before the LORD continually, being taken from the children of Israel by an everlasting covenant.

All of the sabbaths were kept and performed as rituals, which was nailed to the cross.

Col 2:10 – And ye are complete in him, which is the head of all principality and power:

11 – In whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ (a spiritual circumcision):

12 – Buried with him in baptism (but not of water, he was buried in a cave), wherein also ye are risen with him through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead.

13 –And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath he quickened together with him, having forgiven you all trespasses;

14 – Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances (the performance of the rituals) that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross;

15 – And having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them in it.

16 – Let no man therefore judge you in meat (of the dietary law – Lev 11), or in drink (the drink offerings), or in respect of an holyday (every holy day was a Sabbath), or of the new moon (every 1st day of the month they sounded trumpets for 7 months of their ecclesiastical calendar), or of the Sabbath (sabbaton – plural) days:

17 – Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.

The key words are, “which are a shadow” What are the shadows? Meat (of what you should eat of), the drink offerings, holy days (Day of Atonement, Passover, Pentecost, etc…), new moons (new months), and Sabbath days (plural – Sabbaths, not just one Sabbath, and not just a particular Sabbath, but all Sabbaths, which was the performance of the rituals of the Sabbaths).

Eph 2:15 – Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances (the performance of the rituals);

The ordinances or the performance of the rituals was abolished.

Ex 20:8 – Remember the Sabbath (shabbath) day, to keep it holy.

To keep it holy is one word in the Hebrew, qadashComplete Biblical Library says, “making holy involved a ceremonial cleanness or purity”. What is a ceremony? Webster’s Dictionarysays, it is a formal act or series of acts prescribed by ritual, protocol, or convention. Theological Wordbook of the OT says, in the Qal the verb qadash is used most frequently to describe the state of consecration effected by Levitical ritual. In the Piel the word is used most frequently of the act of consecration. Complete Biblical Library says, “the verb in the Piel deals with making someone or something holy to God. This means making them qualified to be used in his presence for his purposes. It usually involves acts of ceremonial obedience by the priests or people and God’s sovereign declaration. Sometimes the translators choose to translate acts of dedication with consecrate, while in other situations it is sanctify. Both English words translate the same Hebrew word, indicating that making something or someone holy. Sanctification, or making holy, is parallel to or involved with atonement, purifying from sin and anointing in Ex 29:36, as well as cleansing in Lev 16:19”. In Ex 20, shabbath is in the piel, meaning this is talking about keeping the rituals of the Sabbath holy. If keeping the Sabbath was to just to go to a church on Saturday or Sunday, this would be the easiest of all the commandments to keep. But that is not the case and it is not what the word Sabbath means. Sabbath means rest and we’re resting in the daily spiritual sabbath now. Israel never kept the sabbath nor the other sabbaths, they never kept it holy and they never rested in the things of God. If you’re going to keep the Sabbath or sabbaths, you’re going to have to keep it holy the way they did, ritually, to the “T”. No work was to be done on the sabbath.

Neh 13:15 – In those days saw I in Judah some treading wine presses on the sabbath (shabbath – singular), and bringing in sheaves, and lading asses; as also wine, grapes, and figs, and all manner of burdens, which they brought into Jerusalem on the sabbath (shabbath – singular) day: and I testified against them in the day wherein they sold victuals.

16 – There dwelt men of Tyre also therein, which brought fish, and all manner of ware, and sold on the sabbath (shabbath – singular) unto the children of Judah, and in Jerusalem.

17 – Then I contended with the nobles of Judah, and said unto them, What evil thing is this that ye do, and profane the sabbath (shabbath – singular) day?

18 – Did not your fathers thus, and did not our God bring all this evil upon us, and upon this city? yet ye bring more wrath upon Israel by profaning the sabbath (shabbath – singular).

19 – And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the sabbath (shabbath), I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the sabbath (shabbath): and some of my servants set I at the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the sabbath (shabbath) day.

Neh 13:21 – Then I testified against them, and said unto them, Why lodge ye about the wall? if ye do so again, I will lay hands on you. From that time forth came they no more on the sabbath (shabbath).

If you’re going to be keeping the Sabbath and you’re driving, you’re sinning. Why? Because you’re producing fire.

Num 15:32 – And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the Sabbath (shabbath) day.

33 – And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation.

34 – And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him.

35 – And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp.

36 – And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses.

He was gathering sticks with the intention of making fire and he died for that.

Ex 35:3 – Ye shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations upon the sabbath(shabbath) day.

If you’re traveling, you cannot travel far, but you can travel a Sabbath’s day journey. That is about a mile or two.

Acts 1:12 – Then returned they unto Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is from Jerusalem a sabbath day’s journey.

McClintock and Strong’s Cyclopedia says, a Sabbath days journey (Acts 1:12) is reckoned by the Hebrews at about seven furlongs, or a little less than one mile, and it is said that if any Jew traveled above this from the city on the Sabbath he was beaten. It was in the spirit of the law, too, that traveling on the Sabbath was forbidden, with reference to Ex 16:29. Josephus’ Antiquities of the Jews says, When Antiochus had erected a trophy at the river Lycus, upon his conquest of Indates, the general of the Parthians, he staid there two days. It was at the desire of Lyrcanus the Jew, because it was such a festival derived to them from their forefathers, whereon the law of the Jews did not allow them to travel. And truly he did not speak falsely in saying so; for that festival, which we call Pentecost, did then fall out to be the next day to the Sabbath. Nor is it lawful for us to journey, either on the Sabbath day, or on a festival day. John Gill’s Expositor says, the Syriac version renders it, about seven furlongs, or near a mile; though Josephus writes, that the Mount of Olives was but five furlongs from Jerusalem: perhaps this may be a mistake in the present copies of Josephus, since Chrysostom on this place cites this passage of Josephus, and reads seven furlongs; which exactly agrees with the Syriac version. A sabbath day’s journey, according to the Jews, was two thousand cubits from any city or town, and which they often called, the bound of the sabbath and which they collect partly from Num 35:4-5 which they understand thus: a thousand cubits are the suburbs (of the city), and two thousand cubits the bounds of the sabbath. And these were so many middling paces; for so they say, a walk of two thousand middling pacesthis is the bound of the sabbath. And that this was the proper space they also gather from Jos 3:4 it being the distance between the ark and the people when they marched; and though this was not fixed by the law, yet being a tradition of the elders, was strictly observed by them: so when Ruth desired to become a proselytess, the Targumist on Ruth 1:16 introduces Naomi thus speaking to her; says Naomi, we are commanded to keep the sabbaths, and the good days, (or feasts) and not to walk above two thousand cubits; i.e. on those days; for to go further was reckoned a profanation of them: so it is said, the sabbath day is profaned with the hands by work, and with the feet by walking more than two thousand cubits. Yea, this was punishable with beatings: a man might go on the sabbath without the city two thousand cubits on every side–but if he went beyond two thousand cubits, they beat him with the beating of rebels, or in the same manner a rebellious son was beaten. Nay, not only they might not go out of a city or town where they were, further than this, but from whatsoever place they happened to be, as appears by these following rules; if anyone falls asleep in the way (or on the road), and he does not know that it was dark (and so that the sabbath is begun), he has two thousand cubits (allowed him) on every side.–Whoever is on a journeyand it is darkand he knows a treeor a hedgeand sayslet my sabbath (or sabbatical seat) be under ithe says nothingbut if he sayslet my sabbath be at the root of itthen he may go from the place of his feetand to the root of ittwo thousand cubitsand from the root of it to his house two thousand cubitsby which means he may go four thousand cubits after it is darkBut if he does not know (any), and is not expert in walkingand sayslet my sabbath be in my place, (i.e. in which he stands) then from his place he has two thousand cubits on every side. Hence, in some copies it is here inserted, such being the distance that the Jews could walk; that is, were allowed to walk by their canons. They call two thousand cubits a mile; and if the Mount of Olives was seven furlongs from Jerusalem, it was pretty near a mile; but if but five furlongs, it was little more than half a mile: perhaps the true distance might be six furlongs, since Josephus says, the tenth legion was ordered to encamp six furlongs from Jerusalem, at the Mount of Olives, which was over against the city to the east; agreeably to which Epiphanius, who had been a Jew, and was born in Palestine, says, it was not lawful to go on the sabbath day beyond six furlongs, which were three quarters of a mile.

A lot of denominations want to pick and choose which sabbaths to keep and what not and that is how they justify their doctrines of the sabbaths and try to enforce it upon others.

Rom 14:1 – Him that is weak in the faith receive ye (proslambano – receive into your fellowship), but not to doubtful (dialogismos – general conversation, but denotes verbal interaction and debate – it is our word dialogue) disputations (diakrisis – the method of judging).

2 – For one believeth that he may eat all things (because there is no sin involved and because God said it is clean – Acts 10:11-15, I Tim 4:3-4): another, who is weak (in the faith), eateth herbs (vegetables and herbs – regarding the dietary laws of Lev 11).

3 – Let not him that eateth (all things) despise (exoutheneo – to treat with contempt, to despise, to reject, to show disdain) him that eateth not (all things, but just veggies); and let not him which eateth not (all things, but just veggies) judge (krino – to decide guilty or innocent) him that eateth (all things): for God hath received (proslambano) him.

4 – Who art thou that judgest (krino) another man’s servant (oiketes – one who lives in the same house with another and thus under the authority of the same householder – a slave as a member of the household)? to his own master (kurios – lord) he standeth (steko – it denotes a present condition resulting from a past act – it means to stand, to persist or to persevere) or falleth (because he is weak in the faith). Yea, he shall be holden up: for God is able to make him stand.

5 – One man esteemeth (krino) one day above another: another esteemeth (krino) every day alike. Let every man be fully persuaded (plerophoreo – from pletho, meaning to fill or complete and phero, meaning to bear or carry – plerophoreo means to fully bear or fully carry) in his own mind (what day he serves God).

Paul is talking about those that are in Rome, those that are weak in the faith, those that are believing Jews, that still observed the eating and drinking of certain foods and the observing of holy days. And this is not the first time that he has mentioned this. Matthew Poole’s Commentary says, there were differences in the church of Rome about the observation of days, as well as the choice of meats; and in this he endeavours an accommodation as well as in the other. The converted Jew was of opinion, that the festival days appointed in Moses’s law, were holier than other days, and that they should still be observed: see Gal 4:10, Col 2:16. On the other side, the believing Gentile was of opinion, that the difference in days under the OT was now ceased, and he esteemed or approved of all days. John Gill’s Expositor says, this is another instance of the difference of sentiments in this church, about the observation of rituals. Not to be understood of days appointed by the Christian churches for fasting, or abstinence from certain meats, either once a year, as the Quadragesima, or Lent; or twice a week, as Wednesdays and Fridays; for these are things of much later observation, and which had never been introduced into the church of Rome in the apostle’s time; nor were there any disputes about them: much less of days of Heathenish observation, as lucky or unlucky, or festivals in honour of their gods; for the apostle would never say, that a man who regarded such a day, regarded it to the Lord; nor would have advised to a coalition and Christian conversation with such a man, but rather to exclude him from all society and communion: it remains, therefore, that it must be understood of Jewish days, or of such as were appointed to be observed by the Jews under the former dispensation, and which some thought were still to be regarded; wherefore they esteemed some days in the year above others, as the days of unleavened bread, or the passover; particularly the first night, which was a night to be observed throughout their generations; and in their service for it to this day, use these words, how different is this night from every other night? and the feast of tabernacles, especially the last and great day of the feast, and the day of Pentecost; also one day in a month above others, the first day of the month, or new moon; and one day in a week, the seventh day sabbath: now there were some, who thought that the laws respecting these days were still in force, particularly the latter, and therefore esteemed it above another: but let it be observed, that the man that did so was one that was weak in faith; the same man that ate herbs, because he would not be guilty of violating those laws, which ordered a distinction of meats to be observed, the same weak man esteemed one day above another, imagining the laws concerning the distinction of days were still obligatory, not rightly understanding the doctrine of Christian liberty, or freedom from the yoke of the ceremonial law.

6 – He that regardeth (phroneo – to set one’s mind on or to have a certain frame of mind) the day, regardeth (phroneoit unto the Lord; and he that regardeth (phroneo) not the day, to the Lord he doth not regard (phroneo) it. He that eateth (all things), eateth (all things) to the Lord, for he giveth God thanks; and he that eateth not (all things, but just veggies), to the Lord he eateth not (all things, but just veggies), and giveth God thanks.

7 – For none of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to himself.

8 – For whether we live, we live unto the Lord; and whether we die, we die unto the Lord: whether we live therefore, or die, we are the Lord’s.

9 – For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.

10 – But why dost thou judge (krino) thy brother? or why dost thou set at nought (exoutheneo) thy brother? for we shall all stand before the judgment seat (bema – properly a step, hence a rostrum or stage for speakers; as a throne) of Christ.

11 – For it is written, As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God.

12 – So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God.

13 – Let us not therefore judge (krino – imperative mood, a command) one another any more (concerning certain foods or holy days): but judge (krino – imperative mood, a command) this rather, that no man put a stumblingblock (proskomma – offenses that causes one to fall – it indicates that the strong are not to cause the weak to stumble and hurt their conscience and one individual’s freedom must not cause others to fall, this is the law of agape) or an occasion to fall (skandalon – a snare, a trap – it describes something that is put in the path that would entice or tempt one to sin and cause ruin and eventually go astray – Mt 18:7, Rom 16:17, I Jn 2:10) in his brother’s way.

14 – I know (eido – see and perceive), and am persuaded (peitho – convinced through fairness and honesty – it is the root word for pistis and pisteuo, faith and believe) by (en – in) the Lord Jesus, that there is nothing unclean of itself: but to him that esteemeth (logizomai – considers) any thing to be unclean, to him it is unclean.

15 – But if thy brother (the one that is weak in the faith) be grieved (lupeo – deep sorrow, heaviness of heart) with (dia – through) thy meat (broma – food – literal or figurative – Jn 4:34, I Co 3:2, 8:10-13), now walkest thou not charitably (agape). Destroy not him with thy meat (broma), for whom Christ died.

16 – Let not then your good be evil spoken of (through our conduct of not walking charitably, in agape – I Jn 5:3, II Jn 6):

17 – For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost (hagios pneuma – clean breath as opposed to unclean breath or unclean spirit – the holy spirit is his truth, which is his word in us – Jn 14:16-17, 26, 15:26, 16:13, I Jn 5:6, Jn 17:17).

18 – For he that in these things (righteousness, peace and joy) serveth Christ isacceptable to God, and approved of men.

19 – Let us therefore follow after the things which make for peace (Ps 119:165), and things wherewith one may edify another.

20 – For meat (broma) destroy (kataluo – to loose and set down) not the work of God. All things indeed are pure; but it is evil for that man who eateth with (dia) offence (proskomma).

21 – It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor any thing whereby thy brother stumbleth (proskopto – the verb form of proskomma, the noun), or is offended (skandalizo – the verb form of skandalon, the noun), or is made weak (or weaken their conscience as per I Co 8:12).

22 – Hast thou faith (regarding v5 and v15)? have it to thyself before God. Happy(makarios – blessed or fortunate) is he that condemneth (krino) not himself in that thing which he alloweth (or approved).

23 – And he that doubteth (diakrino – the method of judging – same as diakrisis in v1 – this one is the verb and the other is the noun) is damned (katakrino – to render judgment against and pass sentence upon) if he eat, because he eateth not of faith (instead he is causing others to stumble): for whatsoever is not of faith is sin.

So if your liberty (of eating certain foods and of observing certain days) is causing others to stumble and weakening the conscience of those that are weak in the faith, it is sin. What is the verb form of faith? Isn’t it belief? The Sabbath is still forever through belief.

Heb 3:7 – Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, To day {semeron – this very day – not a specific day, not Saturday, not Sunday, but today} if ye will hear his voice,

Ye will hear is the word akouo, meaning to obey. Obey is the word hupakouo. In the OT the word for hear and obey are the same Hebrew word shama. To hear is to obey. This word akouo is aorist tense, subjunctive mood, meaning the hearing started in the past and it is a continual hearing.

8 – Harden not your hearts {or your understanding, because the heart to the Jew was the place of understanding}, as in the provocation {parapikrasmos – rebellion – when they came to kadesh-barnea}, in the day of temptation in the wilderness:

9 – When your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my works forty years {in Num 14}.

10 – Wherefore I was grieved (prosochthizo – displeased or disgusted) with that generation, and said, They do alway err (planao – deceived, gone astray) in their heart {in their understanding}; and they have not known my ways.

11 – So I sware in my wrath {orge – feminine gender. The original text actually says, “in the wrath” of the people. God is not a female, but Babylon and the church is}, They shall not enter into my rest)

Rest is the word katapausis – we get our word pause, and kata, meaning down. It means to pause down or settle down. They will not settle down in Canaan, because they’re going to die in the wilderness. Canaan is a picture of heaven. The ones that believe enter into the rest. Belief has to do with the rest of the Sabbath. Joshua and Caleb were the only ones that were 20 years and older that went in to possess the land and rest. The ones that didn’t enter into Canaan or into the rest were the unbelievers among Israel.

12 – Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief (apistis– faith is pistis, the noun. Believe is pisteuo, the verb), in departing from the living God.

13 – But exhort one another daily, while it is called To day (semeron – not Saturday, not Sunday, but today); lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin.

14 – For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end;

15 – While it is said, To day (semeron – not Saturday, not Sunday, but today) if ye will hear (akouo) his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation (parapikrasmos).

16 – For some, when they had heard (akouo), did provoke (parapikraino – the verb form of parapikrasmos, the noun): howbeit not all that came out of Egypt by Moses.

17 – But with whom was he grieved (prosochthizo) forty years? was it not with them that had sinned, whose carcases fell in the wilderness?

18 – And to whom sware he that they should not enter into his rest (katapausis), but to them that believed not (apeitheo – a derivative of apistis)?

19 – So we see that they could not enter in (into God’s Sabbath) because of unbelief (apistis).

The thought continues in chapter 4.

Heb 4:1 – Let us therefore fear (phobia), lest, a promise being left us of entering into his rest (katapausis), any of you should seem to come short of it.

2 – For unto us was the gospel preached, as well as unto them (unto Israel): but the word preached did not profit them, not being mixed with faith (pistis) in them that heard it.

3 – For we which have believed (pisteuo – aorist tense, active voice, participle, which is the ing on the ending of a word – for we which are believing) do enter into rest (katapausis – belief enters us into God’s rest), as he said, As I have sworn in my wrath (orge – in the wrath of the people), if they shall enter into my rest (katapausis): although the works (v10) were finished (in the mind of God – Acts 15:18) from the foundation of the world.

4 – For he spake in a certain place of the seventh day on this wise, And God did rest (katapauo – a derivative of katapausis – God equates katapausis with the Sabbath) the seventh day from all his works.

5 – And in this place again, If they shall enter into my rest (katapausis).

6 – Seeing therefore it remaineth that some must enter therein, and they to whom it was first preached entered not in (into his sabbath) because of unbelief (apistis):

Unbelief equals no rest.

7 – Again, he limiteth a certain day, saying in David, To day (semeron – not Saturday, nor Sunday, etc…), after so long a time; as it is said, To day (semeron – not Saturday, nor Sunday, etc…) if ye will hear (akouo) his voice, harden not your hearts (your understanding).

8 – For if Jesus (Joshua, son of Nun) had given them rest (katapauo – the verb form of katapausis, the noun), then would he not afterward have spoken of another day.

9 – There remaineth therefore a rest (sabbatismos – a derivative of sabbaton) to the people of God. 

10 – For he that is entered into his rest (katapausis), he also hath ceased from his own works, as God did from his.

11 – Let us labour (spoudazo – haste, hurry) therefore to enter into that rest (katapausis), lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief (apeitheia).

Belief undeniably equals rest. The Sabbath is daily and forever, it is a spiritual rest.


By Willie Rodriquez

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